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Adult cats are much less often affected. Diagnosis is usually based on clinical signs, severe neutropenia and lymphopenia, and fecal viral antigen or PCR testing.
Treatment includes intensive fluid therapy, glucose and potassium supplementation, antimicrobial, anthelmintic, and antiemetic therapy, and sometimes immunotherapy.
Feline panleukopenia is a highly contagious, often fatal, viral disease of cats that is seen worldwide.
Kittens are affected most severely. The causative parvovirus is very resistant; it can persist for 1 year at room temperature in the environment if protected in organic material.
Feline panleukopenia is now diagnosed infrequently by veterinarians in many countries, presumably as a consequence of widespread vaccine use.
However, infection rates remain high in some unvaccinated cat populations, and the disease occasionally is seen in vaccinated, pedigreed kittens that have been exposed to a high virus challenge.
Feline panleukopenia has recently been recognized as a re-emergent disease in Australia. Large outbreaks have occurred in unvaccinated cats in shelters, and there has been spread among pet cats in the wider community.
Feline parvovirus FPV; synonymous with feline panleukopenia virus is closely related to mink enteritis virus and the type 2 canine parvoviruses CPV that cause canine parvoviral enteritis.
All are now designated as members of the species Carnivore protoparvovirus 1. FPV can cause disease in all felids and in some members of related families eg, raccoon, mink , but it does not harm canids.
Conversely, some currently circulating CPV strains CPV-2a, -2b, and -2c have been shown to cause feline panleukopenia in domestic cats and larger felids.
Virus particles are abundant in all secretions and excretions during the acute phase of illness and can be shed in the feces of survivors for as long as 6 weeks after recovery.
Being highly resistant to inactivation, parvoviruses can be transported long distances via fomites eg, shoes, clothing. Peroxygen disinfectants eg, potassium peroxymonosulfate are also highly effective.
It is important that contaminated surfaces are thoroughly cleaned of organic material before disinfectants are applied.
Cats are infected oronasally by exposure to infected animals, their feces, secretions, or contaminated fomites. Most free-roaming cats are thought to be exposed to the virus during their first year of life.
Those that develop subclinical infection or survive acute illness mount a robust, long-lasting, protective immune response.
FPV infects and destroys actively dividing cells in bone marrow, lymphoid tissues, intestinal epithelium, and—in very young animals—cerebellum and retina.
In pregnant queens, the virus may spread transplacentally to cause embryonic resorption, fetal mummification, abortion, or stillbirth.
Alternatively, infection of kittens in the perinatal period may destroy the germinal epithelium of the cerebellum, leading to cerebellar hypoplasia, incoordination, and tremor.
FPV-induced cerebellar ataxia has become a relatively rare diagnosis, because most queens passively transfer sufficient antibodies to their kittens to protect them during the early period of susceptibility.
Most feline panleukopenia infections are subclinical, as evidenced by the high seroprevalence of anti-FPV antibodies among unvaccinated, healthy cats.
Peracute cases may die suddenly with little or no warning fading kittens. Vomiting usually develops 1—2 days after the onset of fever; it is typically bilious and unrelated to eating.
Hypersalivation may be seen in some cases, associated with nausea or abdominal pain. Diarrhea may begin a little later than the vomiting but is not always present.
Extreme dehydration develops rapidly. The availability of validated assays varies by country but is becoming more common.
These are only approved and licensed for detecting canine parvovirus , but it is generally known that they also detect FPL viral antigen in feline feces.
These tests are used extra-label because they allow rapid, inexpensive, in-house detection of the virus. In an unvaccinated cat, the presence of antibodies against FPV indicates that the cat either has the disease or has had the disease in the past.
Elevated IgM titers or greater indicate active infection and if clinical signs are obvious diarrhea, panleukopenia the prognosis is poor.
Elevated IgG titers or greater in a cat with clinical signs indicates a better prognosis. Differential diagnoses include salmonellosis , enteric toxins, feline immunodeficiency virus FIV , feline leukemia virus FeLV , cryptosporidiosis , pancreatitis , septicaemia with acute endotoxemia , toxoplasmosis , peritonitis , and lymphoma.
To contain the virus, cats with suspected or diagnosed FPLV should be kept in isolation. It requires immediate, aggressive treatment if the cat is to survive, as it can be fatal in less than 24 hours.
Several articles and publications provide guidance for rescuers and veterinarians for optimizing outcomes. Treatment involves: .
Feeding should be continued as long as possible. In a disease outbreak, unvaccinated kittens or adults can be given anti-FPV serum containing FPV antibodies injected subcutaneously or intraperitoneal.
This may provide protection for 2—4 weeks. Several studies have shown feline recombinant interferon-omega is effective in the treatment of parvoviral enteritis in dogs   and also inhibits replication of FPV in cell culture.
So far no data are available on its efficacy in FPV-infected cats. Cats typically die due to complications associated with sepsis, dehydration, and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy DIC.
In , a retrospective study of infected cats showed that "leukocyte and thrombocyte counts as well as serum albumin and potassium concentrations at presentation are prognostic indicators in cats with panleukopenia, whereas vaccination status, age, clinical signs, and housing conditions are not.
Lifelong immunity is thought to follow recovery from disease, and a carrier state of the disease has never been identified. Cats with suspected or diagnosed FPLV should be kept in isolation.
This non-enveloped virus is very resistant to environmental conditions and many disinfectants, is highly contagious, and rapidly accumulates in the environment due to high shedding of virus from affected animals.
Recovered cats can still shed the virus for up to 6 weeks  and can carry it on their body for prolonged periods.
The practice of recommending and giving vaccines on a fixed schedule with annual boosters has been widely discarded. Current recommendations are based on the philosophy of vaccinating each cat no more frequently than necessary.
These recommendations take into account considerations for the efficacy and longevity of each specific vaccine; the exposure, risk, and need of different cat populations; and socioeconomic limitations.
The FPLV vaccination is considered a "core" essential for health vaccine and is recommended for all domestic cats.
Several types and brands of commercial FPLV vaccines are available to induce acquired immunity. Finally, the cat progresses into the final stage known as the feline acquired immune deficiency syndrome FAIDS stage , wherein the cat is extremely susceptible to secondary diseases that inevitably are the cause of death.
Veterinarians will check a cat's history, look for clinical signs, and possibly administer a blood test for FIV antibodies.
This testing identifies those cats that carry the FIV antibody but does not detect the actual virus.
False positives occur when the cat carries the antibody which is harmless but does not carry the actual virus. The most frequent occurrence of this is when kittens are tested after ingesting the antibodies from mother's milk, and when testing cats that have been previously vaccinated for FIV.
For this reason, neither kittens under eight weeks nor cats that have been previously vaccinated are tested. Kittens and young cats that test positive for the FIV antibody may test negative at a later time due to seroreversion , provided they have never been infected with FIV and have never been immunized with the FIV vaccine.
Cats that have been vaccinated will test positive for the FIV antibody for the rest of their lives owing to seroconversion , even though they are not infected.
Therefore, testing of strays or adopted cats is inconclusive, since it is impossible to know whether or not they have been vaccinated in the past.
For these reasons, a positive FIV antibody test by itself should never be used as a criterion for euthanasia. Tests can be performed in a vet's office with results in minutes, allowing for quick consultation.
Early detection helps maintain the cat's health and prevents spreading infection to other cats. With proper care, infected cats can live long and healthy lives.
The absence of any observed adverse events in several animal species suggests that the product has a very low toxicity profile. Purification of protein from bovine-derived stromal cell supernatants produces a substantially homogeneous factor, free of extraneous materials.
The bovine protein is homologous with other mammalian species and is a homogeneous 50 kDa glycoprotein with an isoelectric point of 6.
The protein is prepared in a lyophilized 1 microgram dose. Reconstitution in sterile diluent produces a solution for subcutaneous injection.
As with HIV, the development of an effective vaccine against FIV is difficult because of the high number and variations of the virus strains.
For these reasons the vaccine is considered "non-core", and the decision to vaccinate should be made after discussion with a veterinarian and consideration of the risks vs.
FIV displays a similar structure to the primate and ungulate lentiviruses. The virion has a diameter from 80 to nanometers and is pleomorphic.
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